Bone Marrow Transplant
A common treatment modality in oncology care is a bone marrow transplant (BMT). In this treatment, a patient with cancer has their bone marrow replaced with cells from a donor, often called a graft, so that it no longer contains cancer cells and has the ability to fight cancer.
Preparation for BMT is quite complex and is usually reserved for those who have already undergone chemotherapy.
The following types of cancer are most amenable to BMT:
Patients about to undergo BMT receive medication to suppress their immune system. Because of this, any infection, including dental infection, that has been festering as chronic, may become acute. A full oral examination and treatment to address potential sources of infection prior to BMT are critical. Patients may be placed on life-long medication regimens after a bone marrow transplant.
In the tissue, grafts are cells with immune system properties. These may react with the cells of the host and result in tissue changes. This is called graft-versus-host disease or GVHD. GVHD is chronic and may affect oral tissues, such as mucosa, muscle, and saliva.
Following a bone marrow transplant, routine preventive dental care can be resumed to maximize oral health. While less common, secondary cancers may occur which means a comprehensive oral exam of the mouth should be performed at each visit.
For more information about bone marrow transplants and oral health, see these resources:
Dental Management of the Organ or Stem Cell Transplant Patient from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research.
Dental Provider’s Oncology Guide- National Institutes of Health
Oral Complications of Cancer Treatment: What the Dental Team Can Do- National Institutes of Health
Oral Complications of Cancer Treatment: What the Oncology Team Can Do - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research
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Importance of good oral health before, during, and after cancer care
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The information on the Dental Oncology Knowledge Center of Rhode Island, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images, and other external materials are for informational purposes only. The Partnership to Reduce Cancer in Rhode Island does not provide medical advice. The information on this website is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.